Sample research paper on the European imperialism

European Imperialism

The Western civilization achieved its height of global expansion by the year 1914. This huge expansion transpired in many forms, primary being economic expansion. Huge amount of money was invested abroad. This amount was spent on building ports and railroads, plantations and mines, public utilities and factories. Trade among nations progressed swiftly and ultimately global economy developed.

A huge gap in income disparities also developed between Europe and the rest of world in the period ranging from 1750 and 1900 at an astonishing rate. Millions of Europeans ultimately migrated abroad. The pressure of overpopulation and poverty in rural areas particularly encouraged this huge migration. Vast empires were established by the European States, mainly in Asia and Africa.

This ‘imperialism’ occurred between 1800 and 1900, as most of the governments in Europe scrambled recklessly for territory. Millions of brown and black people in Asia and Africa were ruled by White people. The primary causes of this imperialism are still debated at a large scale. Superior military force, competition for trade, power politics of Europe and a racist belief in the superiority of Europe were among the most significant. Some Europeans resentfully criticized imperialism specifically as a betrayal of European ideals of equality and freedom.

Frantz Fanon on European Imperialism

A revolutionary writer and psychiatrist, Frantz Fanon’s writings had profound impact on the radical movements in the decade of 1960 in Europe and United States. He was born in Martinique and as a political thinker, views of Fanon attracted attention in Caribbean islands. Fanon, in his writings, asserted that status of persons depend on their social and economic position. He believed that aggressive and violent revolution can end cultural trauma and colonial repression in the Third World.

Fanon was not only preoccupied with probing economic or political origins of imperialism; he confronted imperialism as a scenario of dehumanization mainly caused by Euro-centricity. Psychological research was methodically applied by him- among different other things- to the imperialism phenomenon, focusing gravely on the general social scenario than on individual and personal case studies. As such he was able to identify the global features of imperialism.

According to Fanon, imperialism is workable in the psychological, social, economic and social phases of the life of the colonized. Frantz Fanon analyzed the deepest and severe sensed injuries by the European colonizer on native colonized.

Whiteness becomes an indication or symbol, a scenario that can be terminated only- as per Fanon- through destruction of community, through violence and state related with this indication. Fanon dismissed the theme of non-violence and warned that freedom of state is not the freedom of humanity.

Definition of National Consciousness Based on Fanon’s Views on Imperialism

National consciousness can be defined, based on the ideas presented by Frantz Fanon in his writings, as the fight and struggle made for the national existence which ultimately sustain, nourish and cultivate cultures, opening the doors of construction. It is, in fact, at the core of national consciousness that global consciousness exists. As such this two-fold theme is the ultimate source of every culture. National consciousness is the collective consciousness of society and people. The quality of government as well as the standards of life in a society is dependent on the quality of national consciousness.

National consciousness is formed at the consolidation of inside stability by creating a non-discriminatory and multi-cultural society that have a reverence for the rights of every citizen. Nations protect and establish personal freedom, searching to create uniform opportunities for every citizen. There must be a freedom of thought, freedom of movement, freedom to grow, freedom of thought and ultimately freedom to become anything desired by a citizen.

Social Consciousness

Social consciousness is accomplished by the individuals to create a social awareness in the society. It aims to develop a consciousness among members of the society. The focus of creating awareness and consciousness in the society is based on establishing governance structures that not only guarantees individual freedom but provides equal opportunities for all citizens.

Social consciousness in the society involves a significant shift form entire social relationships that are based primarily on ethnocentric cultures of class and/or blood, to social relationships purely established on cultures of meaning. The core of social consciousness- an awareness of problems in the society- is protecting the rights, ownership and freedom of all citizens without any discrimination. Social consciousness influences the social environment, ultimately promoting the development of consciousness among individuals, so they could confront the problems and difficulties faced by the society in daily life. .

Relationship between National and Social Consciousness

Nationalism is neither a program, nor a political doctrine. In order to ensure that a nation avoid regression and uncertainties, concrete steps should be executed from national consciousness to social consciousness. If nationalism is not enriched or made explicit and deepened by a rapid transformation into social consciousness, it could lead ultimately to a blind passage. National and social consciousnesses are strongly related with each other, as there is a natural composition of society based on merit and intelligence. Redistribution of wealth is ensured through taxation. The people earning more, pay taxes at the highest rates. The necessary relationship between natural consciousness and social consciousness creates a culture of reliable and responsible freedom. Moreover, it creates opportunities for every citizen to grown, learn and share in the nation’s prosperity, ensuring internal stability to sustain external equilibrium.

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